New York City is a wonderful place to be most of the time but especially in September!

If you live or work in the city or just want a good business reason to visit, consider joining RStudio Chief Data Scientist Hadley Wickham in the heart of Manhattan on September 12th and 13th, just by Times Square at the AMA Conference Center. It’s a rare opportunity to learn from one of the R community’s most popular and innovative authors and package developers.

Hadley’s workshops usually sell out. This is his only East US public workshop in 2016 and there are no plans to do another in NYC in 2017. If you’re an active R user and have been meaning to take this class, now is the perfect time to do it!

Register here:

We look forward to seeing you in New York!

The JSM conference in Chicago, July 31 thru August 4, 2016, is one of the largest to be found on statistics, with many terrific talks for R users. We’ve listed some of the sessions that we’re particularly excited about below. These include talks from RStudio employees, like Hadley Wickham, Yihui Xie, Mine Cetinkaya-Rundel, Garrett Grolemund, and Joe Cheng, but also include a bunch of other talks about R that we think look interesting.

When you’re not in one of the sessions below, please visit us in the exhibition area, booth #126-128. We’ll have copies of all our cheat sheets and stickers, and it’s a great place to learn about the other stuff we’ve been working on lately:  from Sparklyr and R Markdown Notebooks to the latest in RStudio Server Pro, Shiny Server Pro,, RStudio Connect (beta) and more!

Another great place to chat with people interested in R is the Statistical Computing and Graphics Mixer at 6pm on Monday in the Hilton Stevens Salon A4. It’s advertised as a business meeting in the program, but don’t let that put you off – it’s open to all.


Session 21: Statistical Computing and Graphics Student Awards
Sunday, July 31, 2016 : 2:00 PM to 3:50 PM, CC-W175b

Session 47 Making the Most of R Tools
Hadley Wickham, RStudio (Discussant)
Sunday, July 31, 2016: 4:00 PM to 4:50 PM, CC-W183b

Thinking with Data Using R and RStudio: Powerful Idioms for Analysts
Nicholas Jon Horton, Amherst College; Randall Pruim, Calvin College ; Daniel Kaplan, Macalester College
Transform Your Workflow and Deliverables with Shiny and R Markdown
Garrett Grolemund, RStudio

Session 54 Recent Advances in Information Visualization
Yihui Xie, RStudio (organizer)
Sunday, July 31, 2016: 4:00 PM to 4:50 PM, CC-W183c

Session 85 Reproducibility Promotes Transparency, Efficiency, and Aesthetics
Richard Schwinn
Sunday, July 31, 2016 : 5:35 PM to 5:50 PM, CC-W176a

Session 88 Communicate Better with R, R Markdown, and Shiny
Garrett Grolemund, RStudio (Poster Session)
Sunday, July 31, 2016: 6:00 PM to 8:00 PM, CC-Hall F1 West


Session 106  Linked Brushing in R
Hadley Wickham, RStudio
Monday, August 1, 2016 : 8:35 AM to 8:55 AM, CC-W196b

Session 127 R Tools for Statistical Computing
Monday, August 1, 2016 : 8:30 AM to 10:20 AM, CC-W196c

8:35 AM The Biglasso Package: Extending Lasso Model Fitting to Big Data in R — Yaohui Zeng, University of Iowa ; Patrick Breheny, University of Iowa
8:50 AM Independent Sampling for a Spatial Model with Incomplete Data — Harsimran Somal, University of Iowa ; Mary Kathryn Cowles, University of Iowa
9:05 AM Introduction to the TextmineR Package for R — Thomas Jones, Impact Research
9:20 AM Vector-Generalized Time Series Models — Victor Miranda Soberanis, University of Auckland ; Thomas Yee, University of Auckland
9:35 AM New Computational Approaches to Large/Complex Mixed Effects Models — Norman Matloff, University of California at Davis
9:50 AM Broom: An R Package for Converting Statistical Modeling Objects Into Tidy Data Frames — David G. Robinson, Stack Overflow
10:05 AM Exact Parametric and Nonparametric Likelihood-Ratio Tests for Two-Sample Comparisons — Yang Zhao, SUNY Buffalo ; Albert Vexler, SUNY Buffalo ; Alan Hutson, SUNY Buffalo ; Xiwei Chen, SUNY Buffalo

Session 270 Automated Analytics and Data Dashboards for Evaluating the Impacts of Educational Technologies
Daniel Stanhope and Joyce Yu and Karly Rectanus
Monday, August 1, 2016 : 3:05 PM to 3:50 PM, CC-Hall F1 West


Session 276 Statistical Tools for Clinical Neuroimaging
Ciprian Crainiceanu
Tuesday, August 2, 2016 : 7:00 AM to 8:15 AM, CC-W375a

Session 332 Doing More with Data in and Outside the Undergraduate Classroom
Mine Cetinkaya-Rundel, Duke University (organizer)
Tuesday, August 2, 2016 : 10:30 AM to 12:20 PM, CC-W184bc

Session 407 Interactive Visualizations and Web Applications for Analytics
Tuesday, August 2, 2016 : 2:00 PM to 3:50 PM, CC-W179a

2:05 PM Radiant: A Platform-Independent Browser-Based Interface for Business Analytics in R — Vincent Nijs, Rady School of Management
2:20 PM Rbokeh: An R Interface to the Bokeh Plotting Library — Ryan Hafen, Hafen Consulting
2:35 PM Composable Linked Interactive Visualizations in R with Htmlwidgets and Shiny — Joseph Cheng, RStudio
2:50 PM Papayar: A Better Interactive Neuroimage Plotter in R — John Muschelli, The Johns Hopkins University
3:05 PM Interactive and Dynamic Web-Based Graphics for Data Analysis — Carson Sievert, Iowa State University
3:20 PM HTML Widgets: Interactive Visualizations from R Made Easy! — Yihui Xie, RStudio ; Ramnath Vaidyanathan, Alteryx


Session 475  Steps Toward Reproducible Research
Yihui Xie, RStudio  (Discussant)
Wednesday, August 3, 2016 : 8:30 AM to 10:20 AM, CC-W196c

8:35 AM Reproducibility for All and Our Love/Hate Relationship with Spreadsheets — Jennifer Bryan, University of British Columbia
8:55 AM Steps Toward Reproducible Research — Karl W. Broman, University of Wisconsin – Madison
9:15 AM Enough with Trickle-Down Reproducibility: Scientists, Open This Gate! Scientists, Tear Down This Wall! — Karthik Ram, University of California at Berkeley
9:35 AM Integrating Reproducibility into the Undergraduate Statistics Curriculum — Mine Cetinkaya-Rundel, Duke University

Session 581 Mining Text in R
David Marchette, Naval Surface Warfare Center
Wednesday, August 3, 2016 : 2:05 PM to 2:40 PM, CC-W180


Session 696 Statistics for Social Good
Hadley Wickham, RStudio (Chair)
Thursday, August 4, 2016 : 10:30 AM to 12:20 PM, CC-W179a

Session 694 Web Application Teaching Tools for Statistics Using R and Shiny
Jimmy Doi and Gail Potter and Jimmy Wong and Irvin Alcaraz and Peter Chi
Thursday, August 4, 2016 : 11:05 AM to 11:20 AM, CC-W192a

We’re proud to announce version 1.1 of the tibble package. Tibbles are a modern reimagining of the data frame, keeping what time has shown to be effective, and throwing out what is not. Grab the latest version with:


There are three major new features:

  • A more consistent naming scheme
  • Changes to how columns are extracted
  • Tweaks to the output

There are many other small improvements and bug fixes: please see the release notes for a complete list.

A better naming scheme

It’s caused some confusion that you use data_frame() and as_data_frame() to create and coerce tibbles. It’s also more important to make the distinction between tibbles and data frames more clear as we evolve a little further away from the semantics of data frames.

Now, we’re consistently using “tibble” as the key word in creation, coercion, and testing functions:

tibble(x = 1:5, y = letters[1:5])
#> # A tibble: 5 x 2
#>       x     y
#>   <int> <chr>
#> 1     1     a
#> 2     2     b
#> 3     3     c
#> 4     4     d
#> 5     5     e
as_tibble(data.frame(x = runif(5)))
#> # A tibble: 5 x 1
#>           x
#>       <dbl>
#> 1 0.4603887
#> 2 0.4824339
#> 3 0.4546795
#> 4 0.5042028
#> 5 0.4558387
#> [1] FALSE

Previously tibble() was an alias for frame_data(). If you were using tibble() to create tibbles by rows, you’ll need to switch to frame_data(). This is a breaking change, but we believe that the new naming scheme will be less confusing in the long run.

Extracting columns

The previous version of tibble was a little too strict when you attempted to retrieve a column that did not exist: we had forgotten that many people check for the presence of column with is.null(df$x). This is bad idea because of partial matching, but it is common:

df1 <- data.frame(xyz = 1)
#> [1] 1

Now, instead of throwing an error, tibble will return NULL. If you use $, common in interactive scripts, tibble will generate a warning:

df2 <- tibble(xyz = 1)
#> Warning: Unknown column 'x'

We also provide a convenient helper for detecting the presence/absence of a column:

has_name(df1, "x")
#> [1] FALSE
has_name(df2, "x")
#> [1] FALSE

Output tweaks

We’ve tweaked the output to have a shorter header, more information in the footer. We’re using # consistently to denote metadata, and we print missing character values as <NA> (instead of NA).

The example below shows the new rendering of the flights table.

#> # A tibble: 336,776 x 19
#>     year month   day dep_time sched_dep_time dep_delay arr_time
#>    <int> <int> <int>    <int>          <int>     <dbl>    <int>
#> 1   2013     1     1      517            515         2      830
#> 2   2013     1     1      533            529         4      850
#> 3   2013     1     1      542            540         2      923
#> 4   2013     1     1      544            545        -1     1004
#> 5   2013     1     1      554            600        -6      812
#> 6   2013     1     1      554            558        -4      740
#> 7   2013     1     1      555            600        -5      913
#> 8   2013     1     1      557            600        -3      709
#> 9   2013     1     1      557            600        -3      838
#> 10  2013     1     1      558            600        -2      753
#> # ... with 336,766 more rows, and 12 more variables: sched_arr_time <int>,
#> #   arr_delay <dbl>, carrier <chr>, flight <int>, tailnum <chr>,
#> #   origin <chr>, dest <chr>, air_time <dbl>, distance <dbl>, hour <dbl>,
#> #   minute <dbl>, time_hour <time>

Thanks to Lionel Henry for contributing an option for determining the number of printed extra columns: getOption("tibble.max_extra_cols"). This is particularly important for the ultra-wide tables often released by statistical offices and other institutions.

Expect the printed output to continue to evolve. In the next version, we hope to do better with very wide columns (e.g. from long strings), and to make better use of now unused horizontal space (e.g. from long column names).

httr 1.2.0 is now available on CRAN. The httr package makes it easy to talk to web APIs from R. Learn more in the quick start vignette. Install the latest version with:


There are a few small new features:

  • New RETRY() function allows you to retry a request multiple times until it succeeds, if you you are trying to talk to an unreliable service. To avoid hammering the server, it uses exponential backoff with jitter, as described in
  • DELETE() gains a body parameter.
  • encode = "raw" parameter to functions that accept bodies. This allows you to do your own encoding.
  • http_type() returns the content/mime type of a request, sans parameters.

There is one important bug fix:

  • No longer uses use custom requests for standard POST requests. This has the side-effect of properly following redirects after POST, fixing some login issues in rvest.

httr 1.2.1 includes a fix for a small bug that I discovered shortly after releasing 1.2.0.

For the complete list of improvements, please see the release notes.

We are pleased to announced that xml2 1.0.0 is now available on CRAN. Xml2 is a wrapper around the comprehensive libxml2 C library, and makes it easy to work with XML and HTML files in R. Install the latest version with:


There are three major improvements in 1.0.0:

  1. You can now modify and create XML documents.
  2. xml_find_first() replaces xml_find_one(), and provides better semantics for missing nodes.
  3. Improved namespace handling when working with XPath.

There are many other small improvements and bug fixes: please see the release notes for a complete list.

Modification and creation

xml2 now supports modification and creation of XML nodes. This includes new functions xml_new_document(), xml_new_child(), xml_new_sibling(), xml_set_namespace(), xml_remove(), xml_replace(), xml_root(), and replacement methods for xml_name(), xml_attr(), xml_attrs() and xml_text().

The basic process of creating an XML document by hand looks something like this:

root <- xml_new_document() %>% xml_add_child("root")

root %>% 
  xml_add_child("a1", x = "1", y = "2") %>% 
  xml_add_child("b") %>% 
  xml_add_child("c") %>% 

root %>% 
  xml_add_child("a2") %>% 
  xml_add_sibling("a3") %>% 

#> <?xml version="1.0"?>
#> <root><a1 x="1" y="2"><b><c/></b></a1><a2/><a3/></root>

For a complete description of creation and mutation, please see vignette("modification", package = "xml2").


xml_find_one() has been deprecated in favor of xml_find_first(). xml_find_first() now always returns a single node: if there are multiple matches, it returns the first (without a warning), and if there are no matches, it returns a new xml_missing object.

This makes it much easier to work with ragged/inconsistent hierarchies:

x1 <- read_xml("<a>
  <b><c>Sea</c><c /></b>

c <- x1 %>% 
  xml_find_all(".//b") %>% 
#> {xml_nodeset (3)}
#> [1] <NA>
#> [2] <c>See</c>
#> [3] <c>Sea</c>

Missing nodes are replaced by missing values in functions that return vectors:

#> [1] NA  "c" "c"
#> [1] NA    "See" "Sea"

XPath and namespaces

XPath is challenging to use if your document contains any namespaces:

x <- read_xml('
   <doc1 xmlns = ""><baz /></doc1>
   <doc2 xmlns = ""><baz /></doc2>
x %>% xml_find_all(".//baz")
#> {xml_nodeset (0)}

To make life slightly easier, the default xml_ns() object is automatically passed to xml_find_*():

x %>% xml_ns()
#> d1 <->
#> d2 <->
x %>% xml_find_all(".//d1:baz")
#> {xml_nodeset (1)}
#> [1] <baz/>

If you just want to avoid the hassle of namespaces altogether, we have a new nuclear option: xml_ns_strip():

x %>% xml_find_all(".//baz")
#> {xml_nodeset (2)}
#> [1] <baz/>
#> [2] <baz/>

Following our initial and very gratifying Shiny Developer Conference this past January, which sold out in a few days, RStudio is very excited to announce a new and bigger conference today!

rstudio::conf, the conference about all things R and RStudio, will take place January 13 and 14, 2017 in Orlando, Florida. The conference will feature talks and tutorials from popular RStudio data scientists and developers like Hadley Wickham, Yihui Xie, Joe Cheng, Winston Chang, Garrett Grolemund, and J.J. Allaire, along with lightning talks from RStudio partners and customers.

Preceding the conference, on January 11 and 12, RStudio will offer two days of optional training. Training attendees can choose from Hadley Wickham’s Master R training, a new Intermediate Shiny workshop from Shiny creator Joe Cheng or a new workshop from Garrett Grolemund that is based on his soon-to-be-published book with Hadley: Introduction to Data Science with R.

rstudio::conf is for R and RStudio users who want to learn how to write better shiny applications in a better way, explore all the new capabilities of the R Markdown authoring framework, apply R to big data and work effectively with Spark, understand the RStudio toolchain for data science with R, discover best practices and tips for coding with RStudio, and investigate enterprise scale development and deployment practices and tools, including the new RStudio Connect.

Not to be missed, RStudio has also reserved Universal Studio’s The Wizarding World of Harry Potter on Friday night, January 13, for the exclusive use of conference attendees!

Conference attendance is limited to 400. Training is limited to 70 students for each of the three 2-day workshops. All seats are are available on a first-come, first-serve basis.

Please go to to purchase.

We hope to see you in Florida at rstudio::conf 2017!

For questions or issues registering, please email To ask about sponsorship opportunities contact

UseR! 2016 has arrived and the RStudio team is at Stanford to share our newest products and latest enhancements to Shiny, R Markdown, dplyr, and more. Here’s a quick snapshot of RStudio related sessions. We hope to see you in as many of them as you can attend!

Monday June 27

Morning Tutorials

Afternoon Tutorials

Afternoon short talks moderated by Hadley Wickham

Tuesday June 28

Wednesday June 29

Thursday June 30

Stop by the booth!
Don’t miss our table in the exhibition area during the conference. Come talk to us about your plans for R and learn how RStudio Server Pro and Shiny Server Pro can provide enterprise-ready support and scalability for your RStudio IDE and Shiny deployments.

Note: Although UseR! is sold out, arrangements have been made to stream the keynote talks from Video recordings of the other sessions (where permitted by speakers) will be made available by UseR! organizers after the conference.


I’m very pleased to announce that dplyr 0.5.0 is now available from CRAN. Get the latest version with:


dplyr 0.5.0 is a big release with a heap of new features, a whole bunch of minor improvements, and many bug fixes, both from me and from the broader dplyr community. In this blog post, I’ll highlight the most important changes:

  • Some breaking changes to single table verbs.
  • New tibble and dtplyr packages.
  • New vector functions.
  • Replacements for summarise_each() and mutate_each().
  • Improvements to SQL translation.

To see the complete list, please read the release notes.

Breaking changes

arrange() once again ignores grouping, reverting back to the behaviour of dplyr 0.3 and earlier. This makes arrange() inconsistent with other dplyr verbs, but I think this behaviour is generally more useful. Regardless, it’s not going to change again, as more changes will just cause more confusion.

mtcars %>% 
  group_by(cyl) %>% 
#> Source: local data frame [32 x 11]
#> Groups: cyl [3]
#> # A tibble: 32 x 11
#>     mpg   cyl  disp    hp  drat    wt  qsec    vs    am  gear  carb
#>   <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#> 1  33.9     4  71.1    65  4.22 1.835 19.90     1     1     4     1
#> 2  32.4     4  78.7    66  4.08 2.200 19.47     1     1     4     1
#> 3  30.4     4  75.7    52  4.93 1.615 18.52     1     1     4     2
#> 4  30.4     4  95.1   113  3.77 1.513 16.90     1     1     5     2
#> 5  27.3     4  79.0    66  4.08 1.935 18.90     1     1     4     1
#> ... with 27 more rows

If you give distinct() a list of variables, it now only keeps those variables (instead of, as previously, keeping the first value from the other variables). To preserve the previous behaviour, use .keep_all = TRUE:

df <- data_frame(x = c(1, 1, 1, 2, 2), y = 1:5)

# Now only keeps x variable
df %>% distinct(x)
#> # A tibble: 2 x 1
#>       x
#>   <dbl>
#> 1     1
#> 2     2

# Previous behaviour preserved all variables
df %>% distinct(x, .keep_all = TRUE)
#> # A tibble: 2 x 2
#>       x     y
#>   <dbl> <int>
#> 1     1     1
#> 2     2     4

The select() helper functions starts_with(), ends_with(), etc are now real exported functions. This means that they have better documentation, and there’s an extension mechnaism if you want to write your own helpers.

Tibble and dtplyr packages

Functions related to the creation and coercion of tbl_dfs (“tibble”s for short), now live in their own package: tibble. See vignette("tibble") for more details.

Similarly, all code related to the data table dplyr backend code has been separated out in to a new dtplyr package. This decouples the development of the data.table interface from the development of the dplyr package, and I hope will spur improvements to the backend. If both data.table and dplyr are loaded, you’ll get a message reminding you to load dtplyr.

Vector functions

This version of dplyr gains a number of vector functions inspired by SQL. Two functions make it a little easier to eliminate or generate missing values:

  • Given a set of vectors, coalesce() finds the first non-missing value in each position:
    x <- c(1,  2, NA, 4, NA, 6)
    y <- c(NA, 2,  3, 4,  5, NA)
    # Use this to piece together a complete vector:
    coalesce(x, y)
    #> [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6
    # Or just replace missing value with a constant:
    coalesce(x, 0)
    #> [1] 1 2 0 4 0 6
  • The complement of coalesce() is na_if(): it replaces a specified value with an NA.
    x <- c(1, 5, 2, -99, -99, 10)
    na_if(x, -99)
    #> [1]  1  5  2 NA NA 10

Three functions provide convenient ways of replacing values. In order from simplest to most complicated, they are:

  • if_else(), a vectorised if statement, takes a logical vector (usually created with a comparison operator like ==, <, or %in%) and replaces TRUEs with one vector and FALSEs with another.
    x1 <- sample(5)
    if_else(x1 < 5, "small", "big")
    #> [1] "small" "small" "big"   "small" "small"

    if_else() is similar to base::ifelse(), but has two useful improvements.
    First, it has a fourth argument that will replace missing values:

    x2 <- c(NA, x1)
    if_else(x2 < 5, "small", "big", "unknown")
    #> [1] "unknown" "small"   "small"   "big"     "small"   "small"

    Secondly, it also have stricter semantics that ifelse(): the true and false arguments must be the same type. This gives a less surprising return type, and preserves S3 vectors like dates and factors:

    x <- factor(sample(letters[1:5], 10, replace = TRUE))
    ifelse(x %in% c("a", "b", "c"), x, factor(NA))
    #>  [1] NA NA  1 NA  3  2  3 NA  3  2
    if_else(x %in% c("a", "b", "c"), x, factor(NA))
    #>  [1] <NA> <NA> a    <NA> c    b    c    <NA> c    b   
    #> Levels: a b c d e

    Currently, if_else() is very strict, so you’ll need to careful match the types of true and false. This is most likely to bite you when you’re using missing values, and you’ll need to use a specific NA: NA_integer_, NA_real_, or NA_character_:

    if_else(TRUE, 1, NA)
    #> Error: `false` has type 'logical' not 'double'
    if_else(TRUE, 1, NA_real_)
    #> [1] 1
  • recode(), a vectorised switch(), takes a numeric vector, character vector, or factor, and replaces elements based on their values.
    x <- sample(c("a", "b", "c", NA), 10, replace = TRUE)
    # The default is to leave non-replaced values as is
    recode(x, a = "Apple")
    #>  [1] "c"     "Apple" NA      NA      "c"     NA      "b"     NA     
    #>  [9] "c"     "Apple"
    # But you can choose to override the default:
    recode(x, a = "Apple", .default = NA_character_)
    #>  [1] NA      "Apple" NA      NA      NA      NA      NA      NA     
    #>  [9] NA      "Apple"
    # You can also choose what value is used for missing values
    recode(x, a = "Apple", .default = NA_character_, .missing = "Unknown")
    #>  [1] NA        "Apple"   "Unknown" "Unknown" NA        "Unknown" NA       
    #>  [8] "Unknown" NA        "Apple"
  • case_when(), is a vectorised set of if and else ifs. You provide it a set of test-result pairs as formulas: The left side of the formula should return a logical vector, and the right hand side should return either a single value, or a vector the same length as the left hand side. All results must be the same type of vector.
    x <- 1:40
      x %% 35 == 0 ~ "fizz buzz",
      x %% 5 == 0 ~ "fizz",
      x %% 7 == 0 ~ "buzz",
      TRUE ~ as.character(x)
    #>  [1] "1"         "2"         "3"         "4"         "fizz"     
    #>  [6] "6"         "buzz"      "8"         "9"         "fizz"     
    #> [11] "11"        "12"        "13"        "buzz"      "fizz"     
    #> [16] "16"        "17"        "18"        "19"        "fizz"     
    #> [21] "buzz"      "22"        "23"        "24"        "fizz"     
    #> [26] "26"        "27"        "buzz"      "29"        "fizz"     
    #> [31] "31"        "32"        "33"        "34"        "fizz buzz"
    #> [36] "36"        "37"        "38"        "39"        "fizz"

    case_when() is still somewhat experiment and does not currently work inside mutate(). That will be fixed in a future version.

I also added one small helper for dealing with floating point comparisons: near() tests for equality with numeric tolerance (abs(x - y) < tolerance).

x <- sqrt(2) ^ 2

x == 2
#> [1] FALSE
near(x, 2)
#> [1] TRUE

Predicate functions

Thanks to ideas and code from Lionel Henry, a new family of functions improve upon summarise_each() and mutate_each():

  • summarise_all() and mutate_all() apply a function to all (non-grouped) columns:
    mtcars %>% group_by(cyl) %>% summarise_all(mean)    
    #> # A tibble: 3 x 11
    #>     cyl      mpg     disp        hp     drat       wt     qsec        vs
    #>   <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>     <dbl>
    #> 1     4 26.66364 105.1364  82.63636 4.070909 2.285727 19.13727 0.9090909
    #> 2     6 19.74286 183.3143 122.28571 3.585714 3.117143 17.97714 0.5714286
    #> 3     8 15.10000 353.1000 209.21429 3.229286 3.999214 16.77214 0.0000000
    #> ... with 3 more variables: am <dbl>, gear <dbl>, carb <dbl>
  • summarise_at() and mutate_at() operate on a subset of columns. You can select columns with:
    • a character vector of column names,
    • a numeric vector of column positions, or
    • a column specification with select() semantics generated with the new vars() helper.
    mtcars %>% group_by(cyl) %>% summarise_at(c("mpg", "wt"), mean)
    #> # A tibble: 3 x 3
    #>     cyl      mpg       wt
    #>   <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
    #> 1     4 26.66364 2.285727
    #> 2     6 19.74286 3.117143
    #> 3     8 15.10000 3.999214
    mtcars %>% group_by(cyl) %>% summarise_at(vars(mpg, wt), mean)
    #> # A tibble: 3 x 3
    #>     cyl      mpg       wt
    #>   <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
    #> 1     4 26.66364 2.285727
    #> 2     6 19.74286 3.117143
    #> 3     8 15.10000 3.999214
  • summarise_if() and mutate_if() take a predicate function (a function that returns TRUE or FALSE when given a column). This makes it easy to apply a function only to numeric columns:
    iris %>% summarise_if(is.numeric, mean)
    #>   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
    #> 1     5.843333    3.057333        3.758    1.199333

All of these functions pass ... on to the individual funs:

iris %>% summarise_if(is.numeric, mean, trim = 0.25)
#>   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width
#> 1     5.802632    3.032895     3.934211    1.230263

A new select_if() allows you to pick columns with a predicate function:

df <- data_frame(x = 1:3, y = c("a", "b", "c"))
df %>% select_if(is.numeric)
#> # A tibble: 3 x 1
#>       x
#>   <int>
#> 1     1
#> 2     2
#> 3     3
df %>% select_if(is.character)
#> # A tibble: 3 x 1
#>       y
#>   <chr>
#> 1     a
#> 2     b
#> 3     c

summarise_each() and mutate_each() will be deprecated in a future release.

SQL translation

I have completely overhauled the translation of dplyr verbs into SQL statements. Previously, dplyr used a rather ad-hoc approach which tried to guess when a new subquery was needed. Unfortunately this approach was fraught with bugs, so I have now implemented a richer internal data model. In the short-term, this is likely to lead to some minor performance decreases (as the generated SQL is more complex), but the dplyr is much more likely to generate correct SQL. In the long-term, these abstractions will make it possible to write a query optimiser/compiler in dplyr, which would make it possible to generate much more succinct queries. If you know anything about writing query optimisers or compilers and are interested in working on this problem, please let me know!

I’m pleased to announce tidyr 0.5.0. tidyr makes it easy to “tidy” your data, storing it in a consistent form so that it’s easy to manipulate, visualise and model. Tidy data has a simple convention: put variables in the columns and observations in the rows. You can learn more about it in the tidy data vignette. Install it with:


This release has three useful new features:

  1. separate_rows() separates values that contain multiple values separated by a delimited into multiple rows. Thanks to Aaron Wolen for the contribution!
    df <- data_frame(x = 1:2, y = c("a,b", "d,e,f"))
    df %>% 
      separate_rows(y, sep = ",")
    #> Source: local data frame [5 x 2]
    #>       x     y
    #>   <int> <chr>
    #> 1     1     a
    #> 2     1     b
    #> 3     2     d
    #> 4     2     e
    #> 5     2     f

    Compare with separate() which separates into (named) columns:

    df %>% 
      separate(y, c("y1", "y2", "y3"), sep = ",", fill = "right")
    #> Source: local data frame [2 x 4]
    #>       x    y1    y2    y3
    #> * <int> <chr> <chr> <chr>
    #> 1     1     a     b  <NA>
    #> 2     2     d     e     f
  2. spread() gains a sep argument. Setting this will name columns as “key|sep|value”. This is useful when you’re spreading based on a numeric column:
    df <- data_frame(
      x = c(1, 2, 1), 
      key = c(1, 1, 2), 
      val = c("a", "b", "c")
    df %>% spread(key, val)
    #> Source: local data frame [2 x 3]
    #>       x     1     2
    #> * <dbl> <chr> <chr>
    #> 1     1     a     c
    #> 2     2     b  <NA>
    df %>% spread(key, val, sep = "_")
    #> Source: local data frame [2 x 3]
    #>       x key_1 key_2
    #> * <dbl> <chr> <chr>
    #> 1     1     a     c
    #> 2     2     b  <NA>
  3. unnest() gains a .sep argument. This is useful if you have multiple columns of data frames that have the same variable names:
    df <- data_frame(
      x = 1:2,
      y1 = list(
        data_frame(y = 1),
        data_frame(y = 2)
      y2 = list(
        data_frame(y = "a"),
        data_frame(y = "b")
    df %>% unnest()
    #> Source: local data frame [2 x 3]
    #>       x     y     y
    #>   <int> <dbl> <chr>
    #> 1     1     1     a
    #> 2     2     2     b
    df %>% unnest(.sep = "_")
    #> Source: local data frame [2 x 3]
    #>       x  y1_y  y2_y
    #>   <int> <dbl> <chr>
    #> 1     1     1     a
    #> 2     2     2     b

    It also gains a .id column that makes the names of the list explicit:

    df <- data_frame(
      x = 1:2,
      y = list(
        a = 1:3,
        b = 3:1
    df %>% unnest()
    #> Source: local data frame [6 x 2]
    #>       x     y
    #>   <int> <int>
    #> 1     1     1
    #> 2     1     2
    #> 3     1     3
    #> 4     2     3
    #> 5     2     2
    #> 6     2     1
    df %>% unnest(.id = "id")
    #> Source: local data frame [6 x 3]
    #>       x     y    id
    #>   <int> <int> <chr>
    #> 1     1     1     a
    #> 2     1     2     a
    #> 3     1     3     a
    #> 4     2     3     b
    #> 5     2     2     b
    #> 6     2     1     b

tidyr 0.5.0 also includes a bumper crop of bug fixes, including fixes for spread() and gather() in the presence of list-columns. Please see the release notes for a complete list of changes.

“How can I make my code faster?” If you write R code, then you’ve probably asked yourself this question. A profiler is an important tool for doing this: it records how the computer spends its time, and once you know that, you can focus on the slow parts to make them faster.

The preview releases of RStudio now have integrated support for profiling R code and for visualizing profiling data. R itself has long had a built-in profiler, and now it’s easier than ever to use the profiler and interpret the results.

To profile code with RStudio, select it in the editor, and then click on Profile -> Profile Selected Line(s). R will run that code with the profiler turned on, and then open up an interactive visualization.

In the visualization, there are two main parts: on top, there is the code with information about the amount of time spent executing each line, and on the bottom there is a flame graph, which shows R was doing over time. In the flame graph, the horizontal direction represents time, moving from left to right, and the vertical direction represents the call stack, which are the functions that are currently being called. (Each time a function calls another function, it goes on top of the stack, and when a function exits, it is removed from the stack.)


The Data tab contains a call tree, showing which function calls are most expensive:

Profiling data pane

Armed with this information, you’ll know what parts of your code to focus on to speed things up!

The interactive profile visualizations are created with the profvis package, which can be used separately from the RStudio IDE. If you use profvis outside of RStudio, the visualizations will open in a web browser.

To learn more about interpreting profiling data, check out the profvis website, which has interactive demos. You can also find out more about profiling with RStudio there.


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